Home Asia Europe North America Polar Regions South America Africa Australia
English
Italian
Korean
Chinese (Simplified)
Chinese (Traditionnal
Portuguese
German
French
Spanish
Japanese
Arabic
Russian
Greek
Dutch
Bulgarian
Czech
Croat
Danish
Finnish
Hindi
Polish
Romanian
Swedish
Norwegian
Catalan
Filipino
Hebrew
Indonesian
Latvian
Lithuanian
Serbian
Slovak
Slovenia
Ukrainian
Vietnamese
Albanian
Estonian
Galician
Maltese
Thai
Turkish
Hungarian

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ancient Wonders
Medieval Wonders
Modern Wonders
New Wonders
Natural Wonders
Underwater Wonders
Industrial Wonders
Mythological Wonders
 
 

 

 

 

European Wonders of the World

Natural Wonders of Europe & Middle East

 

Visit 224 natural world wonders of Europe and the Middle East, from the Hverfjall Crater in Iceland to the Desert Caves in Saudi Arabia.
From the birth of the mystical land of the midnight sun, to the everlasting healing waters of the Dead Sea, Europe and the Middle East span many countries and ages.
The unique natural histories contained in their midst also charter the torturous and celebrated relationships that have marked Man's interactions with nature.

 

Europe is the second smallest of the world's continents, composed of the westward-projecting peninsulas of Eurasia and occupying nearly one-fifteenth of the world's total land area. It is bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, and on the south (west to east) by the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, the Kuma and Manych rivers, and the Caspian Sea. The continent's eastern boundary (north to south) runs along the eastern Ural Mountains and the Emba River. Europe's islands and archipelagoes include Novaya Zemlya, Iceland, the British Isles, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Crete, Malta, and Cyprus. [1]

The Middle East is the lands around the southern and eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from Morocco to the Arabian Peninsula and Iran and sometimes beyond. The central part of this general area was formerly called the Near East, a name given to it by some of the first modern Western geographers and historians, who tended to divide the Orient into three regions. Near East applied to the region nearest Europe, extending from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf; Middle East, from the Gulf to Southeast Asia; and Far East, those regions facing the Pacific Ocean. [2]

 

Interactive map of Europe and the Middle East

New descriptions are added regularly. Last addition 1/21/2010

Iceland-island country located in the North Atlantic Ocean. The capital, Reykjavík (“Bay of Smokes”), is the site of the island's first farmstead and is a thriving city, handsome in aspect and cosmopolitan in outlook. [3] Norway-country of northern Europe that occupies the western half of the Scandinavian peninsula. Nearly half of the inhabitants of the country live in the far south, in the region around Oslo, the capital. [4]

Hverfjall Crater, Husavik, Iceland
Dettifoss, Husavik, Iceland
Vatnajökull & Grimsvotn Volcano, Iceland
Svartifoss, Skaftafells-Sysla, Iceland
Geysir and Strokkur, Southland, Iceland
Heimaey, Vesstmannaerjar, Iceland
Surtsey, Vesstmannaerjar, Iceland

 

Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Norway
North Cape, Finnmark, Norway
The Lofoten Maelstrom, Nordland, Norway
Rost Coral Reef, Nordland, Norway
Geiranger Fjord, More Og Romsdal, Norway
The Pulpit, Rogaland, Norway
Kjosfossen, Sogn Og Fjordane, Norway
Sogefjord, Sogn Og Fjordane, Norway

Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally divided from Asia to its east by the water divide of the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian Sea, and by the Caucasus Mountains to the southeast.

Sweden-country located on the Scandinavian Peninsula in northern Europe. The country's ancient name was Svithiod. Stockholm has been the permanent capital since 1523. [5] Finland-country located in northern Europe. Finland is one of the world's most northern and geographically remote countries and is subject to a severe climate. Nearly two-thirds of Finland is blanketed by thick woodlands. [6]
Mount Sonfjallet, Harjedalen, Sweden
The Lapp Gate, Lappland, Sweden
Abisko National Park, Lappland, Sweden
Mount Akka, lappland, Sweden
Njupeskar Waterfall, Dalarna, Sweden
Stockholm Archipelago, Stockholm, Sweden
Tannforsen, Jamtland, Sweden
Borga Mountain, Vasterbotten, Sweden
Gotland, Gotland, Sweden

Lake Inari, Lappi, Finland
Northern Lights (Aurora Borealis), Lappi, Finland

 

 

 

 

Europe is washed upon to the north by the Arctic Ocean and other bodies of water, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Mediterranean Sea, and to the southeast by the Black Sea and the waterways connecting it to the Mediterranean. Yet the borders for Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are somewhat arbitrary, as the term continent can refer to a cultural and political distinction or a physiographic one.

Scotland-most northerly of the four parts of the United Kingdom, occupying about one-third of the island of Great Britain. The name Scotland derives from the Latin Scotia, land of the Scots, a Celtic people from Ireland who settled on the west coast of Great Britain about the 5th century AD. [7] England-predominant constituent unit of the United Kingdom, occupying more than half the island of Great Britain.Laced by great rivers and small streams, England is a fertile land, and the generosity of its soil has supported a thriving agricultural economy for millennia. [8]
North Gaulton Castle, Orkney Islands, Scotland
The Old Man of Hoy, Orkney Islands, Scotland
Duncansby Stacks, Highland, Scotland
Loch Langavat, Outer Hebrides, Scotland
St. Kilda Archipelago, Outer Hebrides, Scotland
Fingal's Cave, Inner Hebrides, Scotland
Old Man of Storr, Isle of Skye, Scotland
Cuillin Hills, Isle of Skye, Scotland
Falls of Glomach, Highland, Scotland
Suilven, Highland, Scotland
Beinn Askival, Isle of Rum, Scotland
Great Glen and Loch Ness, Highland, Scotland
Glencoe, Highland, Scotland
Loch Lomond, Argyll and Bute, Scotland
Arthur's Seat, Midlothian, Scotland
Traprain Law & North Berwick Law, East lothian, Scotland
St. Abb's Head, Scottish Borders, Scotland
Bass Rock, East lothian, Scotland
Siccar Point-Hutton's Unconformity, East Lothian, Scotland
The Grey Mare's Tail, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland

Farne Islands, Northumberland, England
The Pinnacles, Northumberland, England
Wast Water, Cumbria, England
Bowder Stone, Cumbria, England
High Force Waterfall, County Durham, England
Gaping Gill, Yorkshire, England
Jingle Pot, Yorkshire, England
Brimham Rocks, Yorkshire, England
Bridgestones, Yorkshire, England
The Roaches,Derbyshire / Staffordshire, England
The Wrekin, Shropshire, England
Severn Bore, Gloucestershire, England
Cheddar Gorge, Somerset, England
Wookey Hole Caves, Somerset, England
Seven Sisters, East Sussex, England
Lulworth Cove, Dorset, England
Durdle Dor, Dorset, England
Chesil Beach, Dorset, England
Jurassic Coast, Dorsett / Devon, England
Old Harry Rocks, Dorset, England
The Needles, Hampshire, England
Dartmoor National Park, Devon, England

 

Europe is the world's second-smallest continent by surface area, covering about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi) or 2% of the Earth's surface and about 6.8% of its land area. Of Europe's approximately 50 states, Russia is the largest by both area and population, while the Vatican City is the smallest.

Wales-constituent unit of the United Kingdom that forms a westward extension of the island of Great Britain. The capital and main commercial and financial centre is Cardiff. [9]

 

 

Ireland-country of western Europe occupying five-sixths of the westernmost island of the British Isles. [10]

Northern Ireland-part of the United Kingdom, lying in the northeastern quadrant of the island of Ireland, on the western continental periphery often characterized as Atlantic Europe. [11]

Snowdon & Snowdonia, Gwynedd, Wales
Skomer Island, Pembrokeshire, Wales
Worm's head, Gower Penninsula, Glamorgan, Wales
Henrhyd Falls, Powys, Wales
Pen-Y-Fan and The Brecon Beacons, Powys, Wales


Giant's Causeway, County Atrim, Northern Ireland
Glenariff, County Atrim, Northern Ireland
Strangford Lough, County Down, Northern Ireland
The Callows of the River Shannon, County Offaly, Ireland
Benbulbin, County Sligo, Ireland
The Skelligs, County Kerry, Ireland
Cliffs of Moher, County Clare, Ireland
The Burren, County Clare, Ireland

Europe, in particular Ancient Greece, is often considered to be the birthplace of Western culture. It played a predominant role in global affairs from the 16th century onwards, especially after the beginning of colonialism. Between the 17th and 20th centuries, European nations controlled at various times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania, and large portions of Asia.

France-country of northwestern Europe. Historically and culturally among the most important nations in the Western world, France has also played a highly significant role in international affairs, with former colonies in every corner of the globe. [12] Germany-country of north-central Europe, traversing the continent's main physical divisions, from the outer ranges of the Alps northward across the varied landscape of the Central German Uplands and then across the North German Plain. [13]

The Royal Forests of paris, Ile-De-France / Picardie, France
Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel, Normandie, France
Pavis Peak, Rhone-Alpes, France
Doubs Gorge, France / Switzerland
The Baume-Les-Messieurs Reculee- Franche-Comte, France
Bourget Lake, Rhone-Alpes, France
Mount Blanc, France / Italy / Switzerland
Annecy lake, Rhone-Alpes, France
Meije Glacier & Gorge, Rhone-Alpes, France
Ecrins National Park, Rhone-Alpes, France
Aiguille De Dibona, Rhone-Alpes, France
Chesery Lake, Rhone-Alpes, France
Les Drus, Rhone-Alpes, France
La Vanoise National Park, Rhone-Alpes, France
Aiguille Du Midi, Rhone-Alpes, France
Bossons Glacier, Rhone-Alpes, France
Aiguille Verte, Rhone-Alpes, France
Auvergne's Puy Mountains, Auvergne, France
Le Puy-De-Dome, Auvergne, France
Vaucluse Fountain, Provence-Alpes-Cote D'Azur, France
The Ardeche Gorges, Rhone-Alpes / Provence-Alpes-Cote-D'Azur, France
Verdon Gorge, Provence-Alpes-Cote-D'Azur, France
The Camargue, Provence-Alpes-Cote-D'Azur, France
Mercantour National Park, Provence-Alpes-Cote-D'Azur, France
Mount Ventoux, Provence-Alpes-Cote-D'Azur, France
River Rhone, Switerland / France
The Gavarnie Cirque, Midi-Pyrennes, France
Pilat Dune, Aquitaine, France
Tarn Gorge, Midi-Pyrenees / Languedoc-Roussillon, France
Cevennes Gorge, Languedoc-Rousillon, France
Herisson Waterfalls, Franche-Comte, France
Monte Padru National Park, Corsica, France
Restonica Gorges, Corsica, France

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Valley of the Rhine, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
Elbe Gorge, Germany / Czech Republic
Berchtesgaden, The Watzmann Mountains, & Lake Konigsee, Oberbayern, Germany
The Elbsandsteingebirge, Germany / Czech Republic
The Black Forest, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany

 

 

Austria-largely mountainous country of south-central Europe. Austria extends roughly 340 miles (550 km) from east to west. [14]

 

Pasterze-Grossglockner Glacier, Tirol, Austria
Karwendel Mountains, Tirol, Austria
Krimml Falls, Salzburg / Tirol, Austria
Eisriesenwelt, Salzburg, Austria
Seegrotte, Niederosterreich, Austria
Seisenberg Gorge, Salzburg, Austria
Liechtenstein Gorge, Salzburg, Austria
Lamprecht's Cave, Salzburg, Austria

 

Romania-country lying in the eastern half of the Balkan Peninsula. It is the largest country of the peninsula.[15]

 

The Ceahlau massif, Neamt, Romania
Cheile Turzii, Cluj, Romania
Bicaz Gorge, Neamt, Romania
Danube Delta, Tulcea, Romania

 

Belgium-country of northwestern Europe. It is one of the smallest and most densely populated European countries, and it has been, since its independence in 1830. [16]

 

Han-Sur-Lesse Caves, Namur, Belgium

 

Switzerland-federated country of central Europe. Switzerland's administrative capital is Bern, while Lausanne serves as its judicial centre.[17]

 

Engadine Mountains, Graubunden, Switzerland
Areuse Gorge, Neuchatel, Switzerland
Holloch Cave, Luzern, Switzerland
Grosser Aletsch Glacier, Valais, Switzerland
The Matterhorn, Switzerland / Italy
Jungfrau-Aletsch-Bietschorn, Bern / Valais, Switzerland

 

Both World Wars were ignited in Central Europe, greatly contributing to a decline in European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the United States and Soviet Union took prominence. During the Cold War Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East. European integration led to the formation of the Council of Europe and the European Union in Western Europe, both of which have been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Italy-in Roman antiquity, the Italian Peninsula from the Apennines in the north to the “boot” in the south. In 42 BC Cisalpine Gaul, north of the Apennines, was added; and in the late 3rd century AD Italy came to include the islands of Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia, as well as Raetia and part of Pannonia to the north. [18] Slovenia-country in southern Europe. It is a small, topographically diverse country that abuts the northwestern Balkan Peninsula. The Slovenes are a Slavic people related linguistically to peoples to the south, but the real matrix of Slovenia's culture is its Eastern Alpine location. [19]
Gran Paradiso National Park, Valle D'Aosta, Italy
The Blue Grotto, Campania, Italy
Ritten Earth Pillars, Trentino-South Tyrol, Italy
Dolomites, Trnetino-South Tyrol / Veneto / Friuli-Venezia-Guliula, Italy
Mount Etna, Sicily, Italy
Alcantara Gorge, Sicily, Italy
Stromboli, Aeolian Islands, Italy
Triglav Moutain & the Julian Alps, Gorenjska, Slovenia
Savica Waterfall, Gorenjska, Slovenia
Croatia-country located in the northwestern part of the Balkan Peninsula. It is a small yet highly diverse, crescent-shaped country. [20]
Krka River & Falls, Krka National Park, Sibenik and Knin, Croatia
Plitvice Lakes, Licko-Senjska, Croatia

The Middle East (or, formerly more common, the Near East) is a region that spans southwestern Asia, southeastern Europe and northeastern Africa. It has no clear boundaries, often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The term "Middle East" was popularized around 1900 in the United Kingdom

Spain-country located in extreme southwestern Europe. It occupies about 85 percent of the Iberian Peninsula, which it shares with its smaller neighbour Portugal. Its heartland is the Meseta, a broad central plateau half a mile above sea level. [21] Portugal-country lying along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. Its cold, rocky northern coast and mountainous interior are sparsely settled, scenic, and wild, while the country's south, the Algarve, is warm and fertile. [22]

Ebro River, Cantabria, Spain
Altamira, Cantabria, Spain
Montserrat, Cataluna, Spain
Ordesa Canyon, Aragon, Spain
Bardenas Reales, Navarra, Spain
Sierra De Gredos, Castilla Y Leon, Spain
Sierra De Atapuerca, Castilla Y Leon, Spain
Garrotxa, Cataluna, Spain
Salto Del Nervion, Pais Vasco, Spain
Aiguestortes I Estany De Sant Maurici, Cataluna, Spain
Lake Gallocanta, Aragon, Spain
Mallos De Riglos, Aragon, Spain
Villafafila, Castilla Y leon, Spain
Duero Gorge, Spain / Portugal
La Pedriza, Castilla Y Leon, Spain
Ciudad Encantada, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain
Monfrague, Extremadura, Spain
Penyal D ' Ifac, Comunidad Valenciana, Spain
Fuente De Piedra, Andalucia, Spain
Ruidera Lagoons, Spain / Portugal
Sierra Nevada, Andalucia, Spain
Coto Donana, Andalucia, Spain
Tabernas Desert, Andalucia, Spain
Las Medulas, Castilla Y Leon, Spain
Torcal De Antequera, Andalucia, Spain
Grazalema, Andalucia, Spain
Los Alcornocales, Andalucia, Spain
Cap De Formentor, Mallorca, Spain
Serra De Tramuntana, Mallorca, Spain
Cabrera Archipelago, Mallorca, Spain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tejo Estuary, Santarem / Lisbon, Portugal
Costa Sudoeste, Setubal / Beja / Faro, Portugal
Ilhas Berlengas, Leira, Portugal

 

Albania-country located in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula on the Strait of Otranto, the southern entrance to the Adriatic Sea. It has a maximum length from north to south of about 210 miles (340 kilometres) and a maximum width of about 95 miles. [23]

Butrint National Park, Vlore, Albania

 

Serbia-country in the west-central Balkans. For most of the 20th century, it was a part of Yugoslavia.The capital of Serbia is Belgrade (Beograd), a cosmopolitan city at the confluence of the Danube and Sava rivers [24]

Boka Kotorska Bay, Crna Gora / Serbia & Montenegro

 

Greece-the southernmost of the countries of the Balkan Peninsula. Greece has an area of 50,949 square miles (131,957 square kilometres), of which one-fifth constitutes the Greek islands. [25]

Lake Prespa, Albania / Macedonia / Greece
Lake Ohrid, Macedonia / Albania
Mount Athos, Macedonia Central, Greece
Mount Olympus, Macedonia Central, Greece
Lake Vistonis, Macedonia East and Thrace, Greece
Mount Giona, Stera Hellas, Greece
Lake Kerkini, Macedonia Central, Greece
Meteora, Thessaly, Greece
Diros Caves, Peloponissos, Greece
Lesvos Petrified Forest, Lesvos Island, Greece
Samaria Gorge, Island of Crete, Greece
Vikos Gorge, Epirus, Greece
Valley of the Butterflies, Island of Rhodes, Greece

 

Turkey-country that occupies a unique geographic position, lying partly in Asia and partly in Europe. Turkey is among the larger countries of the Middle East, in terms of territory and population, and its land area is greater than that of any European state. [26]

Pamukkale Springs, Denizli, Turkey
Valla Canyon, Kastamonu, Turkey
Cappadocia, Nevehir, Turkey
Caves of the Taurus Mountains, East Asia Minor, Turkey
Tortum, Erzurum, Turkey
Mount Ararat, Agri, Turkey
Saklikent Gorge, Ankara, Turkey
Karapinar Crater Lakes, Konya, Turkey

 

The history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, and throughout its history the Middle East has been a major centre of world affairs. The Middle East is also the historical origin of three of the world’s major monotheistic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The Middle East generally has an arid and hot climate, with several major rivers providing for irrigation to support agriculture in limited areas. Many countries located around the Persian Gulf have large quantities of crude oil.

Iran-a mountainous, arid, ethnically diverse country of southwestern Asia. Much of Iran consists of a central desert plateau, which is ringed on all sides by lofty mountain ranges that afford access to the interior through high passes. [27]

 

Saudi Arabia-arid, sparsely populated kingdom of the Middle East. Extending across most of the northern and central Arabian Peninsula, Saudi Arabia is a young country that is heir to a rich history. [28]

 

Zagros Mountains, Iran
Salt Glaciers, Iran
Desert Caves, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia
Najran, Najran, Saudi Arabia
Asir National Park, Asir, Saudi Arabia
Lebanon-country located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon is one of the world's smaller sovereign states. The capital is Beirut. [29] Oman-country occupying the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula at the confluence of the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea. [30]
Qadisha Grotto, Bcharre, Lebanon
Pigeon Rocks, Beirut, Lebanon
Cedars of Lebanon, Bcharre, Lebanon
Musandam Fjords, Musandum, Oman
Tawi Attair--The Well of the Birds, Dhofar, Oman
Mughsayl Blowholes, Dhofar, Oman
Israel-country in the Middle East, located at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. Israel is a small country with a relatively diverse topography, consisting of a lengthy coastal plain, highlands in the north and central regions, and the Negev desert in the south. [31] Yemen-mostly mountainous country situated at the southwestern corner of the Arabian Peninsula. It is generally an arid country, though there are broad patches with sufficient precipitation to make agriculture successful. The people speak various dialects of Arabic and are mostly Muslims (see Islam). [32]
Red Canyon, Southern District, Israel
Dead Sea, Israel / Jordan
Masada, Southern District, Israel
Makhtesh Ramon Crater, Southern District, Israel
Wadi Dhar, Sanaa, Yemen
Socotra Island & The Dragon's Blood Tree, Adan, Yemen

 

 


View Larger Map 

 

The World Wonders .Com-visit 1,000 world wonders at www.theworldwonders.com

 

 
 
African
American
Asian
European
Oceanian
Others
 
   
 
   
28 finalists-7 winners will be announced in 2011

 

 

References
 
1. "Europe" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
2. "Middle East." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
3. "Iceland" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
4. "Norway" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
5. "Sweden" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
6." Finland"Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
7. "Scotland" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
8. "England" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
9. "Wales" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
10. "Ireland" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
11. "Northern Ireland" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
12 ."France" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
13. "Germany" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
14."Austria" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
15. Romania" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
16."Belgium" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
17. "Switzerland"Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
18."Italy" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
19."Slovenia" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
20."Croatia" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
21. "Spain" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
22".Portugal" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
23. "Albania" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
24. "Serbia" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
25."Greece" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
26. "Turkey" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
27"Iran" .Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
28. "Saudi Arabia" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
29. "Lebanon"Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
30."Oman"Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
31. "Israel"Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
32."Yemen" Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
33. Flickr-Dead Sea- Creative Commons Attribution License-retrieved 7/4/2009
34. Flickr-Midnight Sun- Creative Commons Attribution License-retrieved 7/4/2009
 
 Wikipedia  text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
 

  Link to this site---Terms of Service---Privacy policy---Contact Us

free web stats