Home Asia Europe North America Polar Regions South America Africa Australia
English
Italian
Korean
Chinese (Simplified)
Chinese (Traditionnal
Portuguese
German
French
Spanish
Japanese
Arabic
Russian
Greek
Dutch
Bulgarian
Czech
Croat
Danish
Finnish
Hindi
Polish
Romanian
Swedish
Norwegian
Catalan
Filipino
Hebrew
Indonesian
Latvian
Lithuanian
Serbian
Slovak
Slovenia
Ukrainian
Vietnamese
Albanian
Estonian
Galician
Maltese
Thai
Turkish
Hungarian

 

 

 

 

 

 

7 Ancient Wonders of the World
7 Medieval Wonders of the World
7 Modern Wonders of the World
New 7 Wonders of the World
Taj Mahal
7 Natural Wonders of the World
7 Underwater Wonders of the World
7 Industrial Wonders of the World

 

 

 

 

 

Great Pyramids of Giza

Ancient Wonders of Earth

 

Pyramid of Khafre

Pyramid of Khafre


Khafre's Pyramid-Khafre's Pyramid, is the second largest of the ancient Egyptian Giza pyramid complex and the tomb of the fourth-dynasty pharaoh Khafre (also spelled Khafra or Chephren).

The pyramid has a base length of 215 meters (705 feet) and rises to a height of 143.5 meters (471 feet). The slope of the pyramid rises at an angle 53° 10', steeper than its neighbor Khufu’s pyramid which has an angle of 51°50'40." The pyramid sits on bedrock 10 meters (33 feet) higher than Khufu’s pyramid which would make it look taller.

The pyramid was likely opened and robbed during the First Intermediate Period. During the eighteenth dynasty the overseer of temple construction robbed casing stone from it to build a temple in Heliopolis on Ramesses II’s orders. Arab historian Ibn Abd as-Salaam recorded that the pyramid was opened in 1372. It was first explored in modern times by Giovanni Belzoni in 1818, and the first complete exploration was conducted by John Perring in 1837.

Like the Great Pyramid, built by Khafre’s father Khufu, a rock outcropping was used in the core. Due to the slope of the plateau, the northwest corner was cut 10 meters (33 feet) out of the rock subsoil and the southeast corner is built up.

The pyramid was surrounded by a terrace 10 meters (33 feet) wide paved with irregular limestone slabs behind a large perimeter wall.

Along the centerline of the pyramid on the south side was a satellite pyramid, but almost nothing remains other than some core blocks and the outline of the foundation.

To the east of the Pyramid sat the mortuary temple. It is larger than previous temples and is the first to include all five standard elements of later mortuary temples: an entrance hall, a columned court, five niches for statues of the pharaoh, five storage chambers, and an inner sanctuary. There were over 52 life size statues of Khafre, but these were removed and recycled, possibly by Ramesses II. The temple was built of megalithic blocks, but it is now largely in ruins.

A causeway runs 494.6 meters to the valley temple. The valley temple is very similar to the mortuary temple. The valley temple is built of megalithic blocks sheathed in red granite. The square pillars of the T shaped hallway were made of solid granite and the floor was paved in alabaster. There are sockets in the floor that would have fixed 23 statues of Khafre, but these have since been plundered. The mortuary temple is remarkably well preserved.


Inside the pyramid


Two entrances lead to the burial chamber, one that opens 11.54 meters (38 feet) up the face of the pyramid and one that opens at the base of the pyramid. These passageways do not align with the centerline of the pyramid, but are offset to the east by 12 meters (39 feet). The lower descending passageway is carved completely out of the bedrock, descending, running horizontal, then ascending to join the horizontal passage leading to the burial chamber.

One theory as to why there two entrances is that the pyramid was intended to be much larger with the northern base shifted 30 meters (98 feet) further to the north which would make the Khafre’s pyramid much larger than his father’s pyramid. This would place the entrance to lower descending passage within the masonry of the pyramid. While the bedrock is cut away further from the pyramid on the north side than on the west side, it is not clear that there is enough room on the plateau for the enclosure wall and pyramid terrace. An alternative theory is that, as with many earlier pyramids, plans were changed and the entrance was moved midway through construction.

There is a subsidiary chamber that opens to the west of the lower passage the purpose of which is uncertain. It may be used to store offerings, store burial equipment, or it may be a serdab chamber. The upper descending passage is clad in granite and descends to join with the horizontal passage to the burial chamber.

The burial chamber was carved out of a pit in the bedrock. The roof is constructed of gabled limestone beams. The chamber is rectangular, 14.15 meters by 5 meters, and is oriented east-west. Khafre’s sarcophagus was carved out of a solid block of granite and sunk partially in the floor. Another pit in the floor likely contained the canopic chest.

 

Page 1-2-3-4-5

 

wen88888
April 14, 2007

The World Wonders .Com-visit 1,000 world wonders at www.theworldwonders.com

 

 
 
African
American
Asian
European
Oceanian
Others
 
   
 
   
28 finalists-7 winners will be announced in 2011

 

 

Content is available under GNU Free Documentation License 1.2.

 

Great Pyramid of Giza. (2009, March 29). New World Encyclopedia. Retrieved 23:59, May 15, 2009 from http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Great_Pyramid_of_Giza?oldid=939476. Link to this site---Terms of Service---Privacy policy---Contact Us

free web stats